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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Chester West"

g'/.aZ-' SOLA&//O30 '7&//SL 






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SOLAR/1030-78/12 




Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



CHESTER WEST 
DECEMBER 1978 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



.NOTICE. 



This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
CHESTER WEST 
DECEMBER 1978 



I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Chester West site is a single-family residence in Huntsville, Alabama. 
Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot 
water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors 
with a gross area of 225 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 49 
degrees to the horizontal. A glycerol -water solution is used as the medium 
for delivering solar energy from the collector array to storage, and water is 
the medium for delivering solar energy from storage to the space heating and 
hot water loads. Solar energy is stored aboveground in a 500-gallon water 
storage tank. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an air-to-air heat pump 
and electrical heating elements which are designed to function in parallel 
with the solar energy space heating loop. Auxiliary hot water heating is 
provided in series with the solar energy hot water heating loop through the 
use of electrical heating elements in an 80-gallon DHW tank. The system, 
shown schematically in Figure 1, has three modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Col lector- to-Storage : This mode activates when the control system 
senses a sufficient temperature difference between the collector and storage 
and remains active until the temperature difference drops below the accepted 
minimum. The collected energy is transferred to storage through a ring-type, 
liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger located in the storage tank. Pump PI is 
operating. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when there is a demand 
for space heating. Solar energy is circulated to the conditioned space by 
solar heated water from storage through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger located 
in the air-distribution duct. Pump P3 is operating. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-DHW Tank : This mode activates when the control system 
senses a sufficient temperature difference between storage and the DHW tank, 
and remains active as long as a sufficient difference exists. Water circu- 
lates from the top of storage through a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger 
located in the bottom of the DHW tank. Pump P2 is operating. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The solar energy system was in continuous operation during the month of Decem- 
ber. Instrumentation anomalies in the form of malfunctioning liquid flowmeters 
(W300 and W400) in the storage/DHW and storage/space heating loops affected 
the December analysis. It was possible to preserve the space heating perfor- 
mance data by basing performance analysis on air rather than liquid flow. 







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This was not possible in the DHW loop. Some storage and DHW performance 
factors were rendered invalid. Data on the space heating component indicates 
a solar fraction of 19 percent, and an electrical energy savings of 0.55 
mil lion Btu. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 8.0 
million Btu for a daily average of 1149 Btu per square foot. This was above 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
December of 1066 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 
49 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during December 
was 45°F as compared with the long-term average for December of 42°F. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

C ollector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of December was 8.0 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating, the total insolation amounted to 7.2 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of December was 3.8 million Btu, result- 
ing in a collector array efficiency of 48 percent, based on total incident 
insolation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 
3.5 million Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to 
storage was 0.3 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage from the collector was 3.5 million 
Btu. The average storage temperature for the month was 96°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed an unknown amount of solar energy and 
0.46 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy. The DHW subsystem consumed a 
total of 0.18 million Btu of operating energy. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 1.2 million Btu of 
solar energy and 5.1 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a 
space heating load of 6.1 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 19 
percent. The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.51 million Btu of 
operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 0.55 million 
Btu. 



OBSERVATIONS 

The evaluation of the DHW and storage solar subsystems was limited by a 
malfunctioning liquid flowmeter. Two system problems need correction: The 
slow liquid seepage from the storage tank and the lengthy operation of the 
pump in the DHW loop. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The space heating subsystem contributed an electrical savings of 0.55 million 
Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

Plans have been made to replace the storage tank. The system designer is 
investigating pump operation in the DHW loop. The operation of the liquid 
flow sensors are to be investigated by Boeing during the next site visit. 







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